Kalyanpur was born on January 28, 1937 in Dhaka, Bangladesh, (which was then a part of India under British Raj), her maiden name being Hemady. In 1943, her family moved to Mumbai (then Bombay), where she received her musical training. She married Ramanand S. Kalyanpur.
Once Talat Mahmood heard Kalyanpur singing in a musical concert. Highly impressed, he recommended her to his music recording company, HMV. At age 17, she provided her first playback singing for the movie, Mangu (1954), singing the song Koi Pukare Dheere Se Tujhe.
Kalyanpur provided playback singing for Miyan Bibi Razi (1960), Bat Ek Rat Ki (1962), Dil Ek Mandir (1963), Dil Hi To Hai (1963), Shagoon (1964), Jahan Ara (1964), Sanjh Aur Sawera (1964), Noor Jahan (1967), and Pakeezah (1971). She sang for composers Shankar Jaikishan, Roshan, Madan Mohan, S. D. Burman, Hemant Kumar, Chitragupta, S. N. Tripathi, and Ghulam Mohammed, singing the most songs for the first two in the list. She has sung over 740 movie and non-movie songs.
Some of Kalyanpur's popular songs include Na Tum Hamen Jano (Bat Ek Rat Ki), Chhodo, Chhodo Mori Baiyan (Miya Biwi Razi), Dil Gham Se Jal Raha (Shama), Yun Hi Dil Ne Chaha Tha (Dil Hi To Hai), Bujha Diye Hain (Shagoon), Mere Sang Ga (Janwar), Mere Mehboob Na Ja (Noor Mahal), Tum Agar Aa Sako To (Ek Sal Pehle), Jo Hum Pe Gujarati Hai (Mohabbat Isko Kehten Hain), and Sharabi Sharabi Yeh Sawan Ka Mausam (Noor Jehan).
Kalyanpur sang with Lata Mangeshkar the duet Kabhi Aj, Kabhi Kal, Kabhi Parason under the direction of composer Hemant Kumar. She recorded some popular duets with male singers Rafi, Manna Dey, Mukesh, Talat Mahmood, and Hemant Kumar. Some of her memorable duets with Rafi are Ajahuna Aye Balama, Tumane Pukara Aur Hum Chale Aye", "Bad Muddat Ke Yeh Ghadi Ayee, Mujhhe Yeh Bhool Na, Tujhhko Dilbari Ki Kasam and Chand Takata Hai Idhar. With Manna Dey, she sang the popular duet Na Jane Kahan Hum The under the music direction of Dattaram.
Kalyanpur also recorded some memorable songs with a classical base, including Manamohan Man Mein Ho Tumhi, Mere Sang Ga Gunguna, and Gir Gayi Re More Mathe Ki Bindiya. She received three times the prestigious Sur Sringar Samsad award for the best classical song in a Hindi movie.
Kalyanpur recorded songs for movies in several languages besides Hindi: Marathi, Assamese, Gujarati, Kannada, Bhojpuri, Rajasthani, Bengali, Oriya, and Punjabi. Her recordings include devotional songs, ghazals, and thumris.
In Marathi, Kalyanpur recorded for composers Sudhir Phadke, Dashrath Pujari, and Ashok Patki. Some of her well-known Marathi songs are Rimjhhim Jharate Shrawan Dhara, Shabda Shabda Japun Thhewa, Re Kshanachya Sangateene, Jethe Sagara Dharanee Milate, Bhaktichya Phulancha Goad To Suwas, and Ketakichya Banee Tethe Nachala Ga Mora.